Day 1 :
Keynote: Molecular Mechanisms of Hypervirulent Group A Streptococcus to Evade Innate Immune Responses and to Invade the Vascular System in Mouse Model of Pulmonary Infection
Time : 9:00
Benfang Lei has completed his PhD from University of Houston, Texas and postdoctoral study at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH at Hamilton, Montana. He is an Associate Professor at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University. He has published 70 primary research papers and has been serving as an academic editor of PloS One and an editorial board member of Infection and Immunity.
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes common pharyngitis and occasional severe invasive infections. There is a significant knowledge gap on why noninvasive upper respiratory GAS infections usually do not result in lower respiratory infections while certain GAS strains can cause pneumonia and how invasive GAS disseminates systemically. A pulmonary murine infection model is used to address these questions. Paryngeal GAS isolates induced robust neutrophil recruitment and was effectively cleared in a NADPH Oxidase-dependent mechansim by neutrophils. In contrast, invasive isolates with mutations in virulence regulators CovRS and/or RopB inhibited neutrophil recruitment and caused pulmonary infections. Natural GAS RopB mutants caused infection only in the alveolar region whereas natural CovS and RopB double GAS mutants invade the perivascular interstitium, disrupts smooth muscle and endothelial layers of the blood vessels, and penetrates into the lumen of endothelial layer and the systemic circulation. Correction of the CovS mutation abolished the capacity of GAS to invade the vascular system. To identify virulecence factors that are critical for GAS innate immune evasion and vascular invasion, we tested single and double deletion mutants of CovRS-controlled virulence genes of hypervirulent GAS. Only a surface protein was found to be critical for the vascular invasion, and the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment requires both streptolysin S and the platelet-activating factor acetyl hydroslase Sse. Thus, Streptolysin S- and Sse-dependent evasion of neutrophil response is critical for the capacity of GAS to cause pulmonary infection, and GAS invasion of the vascular system requires the surface protein.
Instructor of Biology
Time : 9:40
Amy Klocko has a PhD in Plant Biology from Washington University in St. Louis (2009). She is the author of 15 peer-reviewed publications and has presented her work at over 20 region, national and inernational conferences. She is currently an Instructor of Biology at the University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
Commercial crops, such as corn, wheat, and soy are subject to damage from a variety of biotic and abiotic sources, leading to reduced yields and a loss of income. There are a variety of strategies available to mitigate damage from biotic sources, including breeding for improved resistance, the application of pesticides, and crop rotation. Genetic engineering methods offer additional methods. One such method, host induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an approach that shows promise for the control of a variety of problematic crop-damaging organisms, ranging from nematodes and insects, to fungi and parasitic plants. In general, HIGS utilizes RNA interference (RNAi) molecules produced by the plant, which then target key genes in pests/pathogens, ideally leading to improved resistance of the plant and a reduction in damage. This approach has been demonstrated to be effective in both laboratory and field settings, in a variety of host plants and targeting diverse pests/pathogens. Currently, no HIGS-protected crops are being used in a commercial setting. As this area of research is still very much in development, the possible off-target and non-target effects need to be assessed, as do the long-term stability and effectiveness. Practical implementation of HIGS to commercial crop production will rely on extensive field-testing, as well as regulatory and marketplace acceptance of new varieties.
Administrative Board Member French society of immunology
French Medical and cosmopolitan professional specialised in infectious diseases, internal medicine covering various therapeutic axes, certified in Immunology and Pediatric, MBA vaccinology, graduated in Public health and diplomacy (Switzerland) with years of clinical practise
Lived multi-country medical “field “experience in Southeast Asia (India in particular), West/Central/East Europe.
Speaking French, English, Russian, Italian, Czech, Slovak with notion of Mandarin.
Over 15 years of medical lead experience in pharmaceutical research and development for European and USA companies for various therapeutic areas for adults and children Active member of French immunology society administrative board and several international academic societies (focus on innovation of R&D reflecting immunology and genetic variability, role of immunologic approach for treatment and diagnostic and tackle problem of resistance for antimicrobials, antimalarial, TB etc) Member of advisory Health concern (India) and think tank group in order to attract attention to role of global cooperation in this area. Years of expertise to work globally within Europe, USA but more focused on BRICS - Asia (India in Particular) as a Medical advisor to promote partnership in research and development and bring science to clinic.
Bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi that are resistant to drug cause 700,000 death each year. By 2050 superbugs inured to treatments could cause up to 10 million deaths annually and costs the global economy US$100 trillion.
AMR (antimicrobial) resistance is regarded nowadays as a major threat to global public health. The issue is receiving high-level political attention (G7 and G20 in 2017 for first time). The list was drawn up in a bid to guide and promote research and development (R&D) of new antibiotics, as part of WHO’s efforts for AMR (27th Feb 2017)
Resistance to antibiotics may arise in a population of susceptible bacteria by the accumulation of mutations (e.g. point mutations in DNA gyrase conferring resistance to quinolones) or by the acquisition of resistance genes that protect the cell against antibiotics.
Antibiotic resistance genes can cause phenotypic resistance through a variety of mechanisms, including the enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic, the modification of the antibiotic target and the prevention of the accumulation of lethal intracellular concentrations of the antibiotic through efflux pumps
Problem of resistance get worsened due declining number of new antibiotics and limited number of new classes direct research to look for alternatives.
Additionally, antibiotics shape the ecology of the gut microbiota in profound ways, causing lasting changes to developing and mature microbiotas. The application of next-generation sequencing has enabled detailed views of the side effects these drugs have on commensal populations during treatment of infections.
The human gut thus harbours a complex microbial ecosystem, which consists of hundreds of species, collectively termed the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is relatively stable in healthy adults but the composition of the gut microbiota can change rapidly owing to dietary changes, illness and the use of antibiotics.
Importantly, there is and evidence of existing communication between the central and the enteric nervous system, linking emotional and cognitive centers of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions.
This interaction between microbiota appears to be bidirectional, namely through signaling from gut-microbiota to brain and from brain to gut-microbiota by means of neural, endocrine, immune, and humoral links.
Negative impact on composition and functionality microbiota given existing immune crosstalk including “innate cell immunity training” impact host immune response capacities observed in recent research.
Imbalances in the gut microbiota can induce inflammation that is associated also with the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Therefore in addition to the increased threat of resistance to antibiotics caused by inappropriate use of antibiotics and important side effects on microbiota, it is clear that overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics must be quickly phased out in favour of more precise approaches and must be complemented by efficient methods to restore the microbiota after injury.
Recent advances in the development of narrow-spectrum antivirulence compounds, coupled with a renewed interest in the use of probiotics, FMTs (fecal microbiota transplantation) and phage therapy along with thoughtful development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies represents paths in multiple approach to tackle AMR considering preservation of microbiota.
FMT working principle is to restore the microbiological environment in host intestine similarly as probiotic while administrating live microorganism to confer a health benefit on the host. For both there is a need for standardised clinical protocols to help translation in clinical wider use. Moreover microbiome therapeutics are seen as potential intervention to reduce carriage of resistant pathogens.
High potential of vaccines to tackle antibiotic resistance respecting role of gut microbiota as host superorganism gain evidence.
One should note that vaccines like diphtheria and tetanus did not prompt resistance. In 1980 the smallpox vaccine had eradicated the naturally circulating virus worldwide without generating resistance.
Additionally, introduction of live vaccines like measles and BCG has been associated with much larger reduction of morality than can be explained by the prevention of the targeted infections and recent research around LATV highlights importance of “off target” effects to be evaluated in depth.
In conclusion, alternative directions considering strongly their role on host microbiota and immune system modulation should be strongly promoted while tackling issue of antibiotic resistance.
Time : 10:50
Prof. Dr. Mona El-Temsahy is working in the Medical Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. She is expert in different diagnostic techniques in parasitological diseases and also in appliction of new lines of treatment such as nanoparticles.
Cyclosporiasis is an emerging worldwide infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Cyclospora caytenensis. The standard treatment for cyclosporiasis is a combination of two antibiotics, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Many side effects were reported with this combination with no alternative drug treatment option. In this study, silver nanoparticles were chemically synthesized to be evaluated for the first time for their anti-cyclospora effects in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed experimental mice in comparison to the standard treatment. The effect of silver nanoparticles was assessed through studying stool oocysts’ load, oocysts’ viability, ultrastructural oocysts’ changes, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Toxic effect of the drug was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes, urea and creatinine in mice sera. Results showed that silver nanoparticles had promising anti-cyclospora potentials. The animals that received these nanoparticles showed statistically significant decrease in the oocysts’ burden and number of viable oocysts in the mice stool and a statistically significant increase in serum gamma interferon in comparison to the corresponding group receiving the standard treatment and to the infected non-treated control group. Scanning Electron microscopic examination revealed mutilated oocysts with irregularities, poring and perforations. These effects were more pronounced in immunosuppressed animals. Biochemical results showed no evidence of toxicity as mice sera showed a statistically significant decrease in liver enzymes, and statistically non-significant decrease in urea and creatinine. Thus, silver nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against Cyclospora infection and this will open the way to its use as an alternative to the standard therapy.
Faculty of Agriculture – Cairo Univ, CAIRO, EGYPT
Ahmed Mokhtar has completed his B.Sc in Biotechnology at the age of 22 years from faculty of agriculture at Cario University as fouth on the honor list of the program and master student at bioinformatics institute suez canal university .He is a Resaerch intern at biomedical lab from Helioplois University. He is the director of BioCourses, a premier Eduactional service organization
Nanotechnology is an emerging field that covers a wide range of disciplines, including the frontiers of chemistry, materials, medicine, electronics, optics, sensors, information storage, communication, energy conversion, environmental protection, aerospace and more. It focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization and application of materials and devices at the nanoscale Nanomaterials are the foundation of nanotechnology and are anticipated to open new avenues to numerous emerging technological applications. Nanotechnology has grown very fast in the past two decades because of the availability of new approaches and tools for the synthesis, characterization, and manipulation of nanomaterials he purification of drinking water is a primary environmental application of nanotechnology. Contamination and over freshwater resources. Seawater is becoming a recognized source for drinking water, as freshwater becomes significantly scarce. We use the iron oxide nanoplates carried with specific virus that detect the Pathogeneic bacteria (E.COLI) in water tube as a indicator for the pathogenicity of the water tube and as method for chossing the suitable way for water purification.