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2nd International Conference on Microbial Pathogenesis & Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Rising peril: Microbial pathogenesis & Infectious Diseases”

Microbial Pathogenesis 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Microbial Pathogenesis 2018

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Microbial Pathogenesis is the investigation of the sub-atomic instruments utilized by organisms to cause illness in people and creatures.Autophagy, or cellular self-digestion, is a cellular pathway involved in protein and organelle degradation, with an astonishing number of connections to human disease and physiology. Autophagic dysfunction is associated with cancer, neurodegeneration, microbial infection and ageing. Paradoxically, although autophagy is primarily a protective process for the cell, it can also play a role in cell death. Understanding autophagy may ultimately allow scientists and clinicians to harness this process for the purpose of improving human health autophagy

  • Track 1-1Macroautophagy
  • Track 1-2Protozoan Pathogens (free-living amebae, trypanosomes)
  • Track 1-3Microautophagy
  • Track 1-4Autophagy regulation.
  • Track 1-5Homeostasis.
  • Track 1-6Role of autophagy in human disease

Immunodeficiency disorders prevent your body from fighting infections and diseases. This type of disorder makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections.Immunodeficiency disorders are either congenital or acquired. An immunodeficiency disorder disrupts your body’s ability to defend itself against these bacteria, virus, cancer cells, parasitesA new study has found a way of manipulating the differentiation of T cells in the immune system so as to strike a balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cells. This discovery may have implications for treating autoimmune diseases and some types of cancer. Autoimmune diseases are triggered when our immune system misidentifies healthy cells as foreign bodies and decides to attack them. In this process, certain cells called "T cells,  which are found in the immune system, T cells are of different types and have distinct functions, but their main role is to mediate immune reactions in the body. Some T cells are pro-inflammatory, promoting an immune response, while others are immunosuppressive, regulating the "aggressiveness" of this response. Autoimmune diseases, as well as some types of cancer such as colorectal cancer and lung cancer, are mediated by certain T cell imbalances in the immune system. These imbalances lead either to anomalous inflammations, or to a lack of reaction, wherein the body is unable to identify pathogens. a particular type of T cells called "T helper 17" (Th17) cells. Studies have found that Th17 cells can be unstable, thus sustaining autoimmune diseases and mediating some cancers, which are immunosuppressive.

  • Track 2-1Ataxia-telangiectasia
  • Track 2-2Chediak-Higashi syndrome
  • Track 2-3Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
  • Track 2-4X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA)

Prenatal Infections can be very serious and include a host of various ailments. The following are a few of the most common infections that can occur: Salmonellosis, Group B Strep (GBS), Cytomegalovirus, Varicella (Chickenpox), Erythema Infectiosum (“Fifth Disease”), Listeriosis, and Toxoplasmosis

  • Track 3-1Tests for Potential Infections
  • Track 3-2Signs & Symptoms
  • Track 3-3Treatment
Infection is the intrusion of a life form's body tissues by sickness causing operators, their increase, and the response of host tissues to the irresistible specialists and the toxins they produce. Infectious diseases, otherwise called transmissible diseases or transferable diseases, is illness coming about because of a disease. 
 
Diseases are caused by infectious agents including infections, viroids, prions, microscopic organisms, nematodes, for example, parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods, for example, ticks, vermin, bugs, and lice, growths, for example, ringworm, and different macroparasites, for example, tapeworms and different helminths. 
 
Hosts can battle contaminations utilizing their resistant framework. Mammalian hosts respond to diseases with an inborn reaction, regularly including irritation, trailed by a versatile response. 
 
Specific modulations used to treat contaminations incorporate anti-microbials, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. The branch of solution that spotlights on contaminations is referred to as infectious diseases.Contamination counteractive action and administration is helpful to keep the transmission of irresistible illnesses. Some infectious diseases are frequently prevented by maintaining a strategic distance from coordinate contact with the infectious individual. Contaminations can even be controlled and avoided by making awareness on various infectious diseases and their outbreaks.
  • Track 4-1Immunity to Microbial Infections
  • Track 4-2Infection and Immunity
  • Track 4-3 Infectious disease surveillance
  • Track 4-4Phylodynamics of infectious diseases
  • Track 4-5Emerging Infections and Bio Threats
  • Track 4-6Vaccinations and Vaccines

Postpartum infections comprise a wide range of entities that can occur after vaginal and cesarean delivery or during breastfeeding. In addition to trauma sustained during the birth process or cesarean procedure, physiologic changes during pregnancy contribute to the development of postpartum infections.

1.The typical pain that many women feel in the immediate postpartum period also makes it difficult to discern postpartum infection from postpartum pain.

Postpartum patients are frequently discharged within a couple days following delivery. The short period of observation may not afford enough time to exclude evidence of infection prior to discharge from the hospital. In one study, 94% of postpartum infection cases were diagnosed after discharge from the hospital. 

2.Postpartum fever is defined as a temperature greater than 38.0°C on any 2 of the first 10 days following delivery exclusive of the first 24 hours.

3. The presence of postpartum fever is generally accepted among clinicians as a sign of infection that must be determined and managed

 

Antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are "susceptible." Susceptible bacteria are killed or inhibited by an antibiotic, resulting in a selective pressure for the survival of resistant strains of bacteria.

Some bacteria are naturally resistant to certain types of antibiotics. However, bacteria may also become resistant in two ways: 1) by a genetic mutation or 2) by acquiring resistance from another bacterium.

 

  • Track 6-1Causes & Prevention
  • Track 6-2Antibiotic Usage
  • Track 6-3Mechanisms of Resistance
  • Track 6-4Monitoring & Strategies

       More than ever before we are facing the threat of new diseases that seemingly erupt out of nowhere. More than 60 percent of all new emerging infectious diseases derive from animal hosts man-made epidemic    diseases have all emerged as a result from the destruction of the rainforests, loss of wildlife habitats, and climate change. Emerging infectious disease causes morality rates upwards of 15 million people each year – many victims are children under the age of six.  Developing capacity to strengthen and educate teams of scientists to help detect, prevent and control infectious diseases in animals and people Focusing on the early identification of dangerous wildlife pathogens and rapid response to thwart the spread of disease before they become a significant threat to public health ecohealth Early detection and discovery of new viruses ultimately helps inform global public health agencies like the World Health Organizations and education to stop diseases in their tracks.

  • Track 7-1 Ebola
  • Track 7-2SARS
  • Track 7-3HIV/AIDS
  • Track 7-4Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
  • Track 7-5Avian influenza
  • Track 7-6Canine Influenza A(H3N2) Virus.
  • Track 7-7Orthopoxvirus.
  • Track 7-8Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are also called sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs. STIs are usually spread by having vaginal, oral, or anal sex. An STI is an infection passed from one person to another person through sexual contact. An infection is when a bacteria, virus, or parasite enters and grows in or on body. Some STIs can be cured and some STIs cannot be cured. Women often have more serious health problems from STIs than men

 

  • Track 8-1Chlamydia
  • Track 8-2Genital warts
  • Track 8-3Genital herpes
  • Track 8-4Gonorrhoea
  • Track 8-5Syphilis
  • Track 8-6Trichomoniasis
  • Track 8-7Pubic Lice
  • Track 8-8Scabies

In today's globalized world, rapid urbanization, mechanization of the rural economy, and the activities of trans-national food, drink and tobacco corporations are associated with behavioral changes that increase the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These changes include less healthy diet, lower physical activity, tobacco smoking and increased alcohol consumption. As a result, population health profiles are rapidly changing. For example, the global burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus is expected to double by 2030, with 80% of adult cases occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Many LMIC are undergoing rapid changes associated with developing high rates of NCD while concomitantly battling high levels of certain communicable diseases, including HIV, TB and malaria. This has population health, health systems and economic implications for these countries. This critical review synthesizes evidence on the overlap and interactions between established communicable and emerging NCD epidemics in LMIC. The review focuses on HIV, TB and malaria and explores the disease-specific interactions with prevalent NCDs in LMIC including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive diseases. We highlight the complexity, bi-directionality and heterogeneity of these interactions and discuss the implications for health systems.

 

  • Track 9-1Comorbidity
  • Track 9-2Epidemologic transistion
  • Track 9-3Ischemic heart disease
  • Track 9-4 Diarrheal disease
  • Track 9-5Major depressive disorder

The possible etiologies of infections are diverse; they range from common bacterial and viral pathogens that affect the entire community to opportunistic pathogens that are clinically significant only for immunocompromised hosts. Inflammatory responses are impaired by immunosuppressive therapy, and this results in diminished clinical and radiological findings. Thus, an early diagnosis is much more difficult, but it is the key to successful therapy. Invasive diagnostic procedures are often required Antimicrobial therapies are often more complex in these patients versus other patients because of the urgency of empiric therapy and the frequency of drug toxicity and drug interactions Drug interactions and drug toxicity are common. The initiation or cessation of antimicrobial therapies may alter the levels of calcineurin inhibitors, antifungal agents, and other drugs

  • Track 10-1Risk of Infections
  • Track 10-2Vaccinations to Consider Before Transplantation
  • Track 10-3Time Table of Infections
  • Track 10-4Drug Interactions & Effects

Endocarditis is defined by the swelling of the inner lining of the heart. Endocarditis caused by bacterial or fungal attachment and infection by means of developing vegetation, is therefore termed infective endocarditis. Endocardium does not receive a direct blood supply by capillaries or any blood vessels. Blood will usually flow smoothly past the inner linings of the heart, but many things can cause attachment of microbes causing endocarditis. For example, any diseases that cause harm or result in abnormal valves, will allow the microbes that come through to attach more easily.

 

  • Track 11-1Types of Endocarditis
  • Track 11-2Signs & Symptoms
  • Track 11-3Risk Factors
  • Track 11-4Diagnosis

Infection and Immunity (IAI) provides new insights into the interactions between bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens and their hosts. Specific areas of interest include mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis, virulence factors, cellular microbiology, experimental models of infection, host resistance or susceptibility, and the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses. IAI also welcomes studies of the microbiome relating to host-pathogen interactions. The Infection and Immunity Research Network studies the mechanisms that cause and spread disease. From emerging infections, spread around the world by modern travel or by environmental change, to chronic inflammatory conditions that strain the resources of first-world economies to breaking point, research in this area has immediate relevance to diseases that affect us all.

  • Track 12-1Immune regulation
  • Track 12-2Pathogenesis of infection
  • Track 12-3Innate immunity
  • Track 12-4Herd immunity

Kidney infection, also known as renal infection or pyelonephritis, is a common type of urinary tract infection. Bacteria often infect the bladder or the urethra and spreads to one of the kidneys. Usually, it starts with a bladder infection that spreads to the kidney. Usually, bacteria called E. coli cause the infection to begin with. Other bacteria can also cause kidney infections.

 

  • Track 13-1Causes & Symptoms
  • Track 13-2Dialysis & Renal Care
  • Track 13-3Diagnosis& Treatment
  • Track 13-4Complications & Prevention

The implantation procedure initiates a response to injury, and mechanisms are activated to produce healing.The degree to which the homeostatic mechanisms are perturbed and the extent of pathophysiologic responses and their resolution are measures of the host reactions to the biomaterial, and they may ultimately determine its biocompatibility and its success or failure as a device or prosthesis. Although it is convenient to consider blood-material interactions separately from tissue-material interactions, it should be kept in mind that the mechanisms involved in both sets of interactions involve both blood and tissue. Furthermore, host reactions are tissue dependent, organ dependent, and species dependent. Obviously, the extent of injury varies depending on the implantation procedure.

  • Track 14-1Cardiac pacemakers
  • Track 14-2Intra uterine contraceptive devices
  • Track 14-3Cerebrospinal fluid shunt devices
  • Track 14-4Vascular grafts

Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus .The Zika virus causes fever, joint pain, headaches, a rash, conjunctivitis and muscle pain. As with other viruses, it is characterised by spreading via the cells of the body. Both men and women can contract the disease. Flavivirus genomes are between 40 and 60 nm in size.  There are over 3000 types of mosquitoes but it is usually the Aedes mosquitoes that spread Zika from one infected person to another. The disease was then later detected in the Aedes mosquito that also lives in the Zika forest .The Zika virus is believed to be endemic in patients in Asia, Africa. As well as these continents, the virus has also now been detected in the Pacific and Americas.

  • Track 15-1Zika virus in pregnant women
  • Track 15-2 Detecting microcephaly in the womb
  • Track 15-3Zika Explosion
  • Track 15-4Development of the Zika vaccine